Biomedical Engineering

Steven George


George Lab

Personal Education

B.S. in Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University, 1987
M.D. from University of Missouri School of Medicine 1991
Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering University of Washington 1995

Research Interest

Our research program is focused in three different areas of transport phenomena and tissue engineering and include: 1) 3D microphysiological systems to simulate vascularized cardiac, tumor, and pancreatic tissue, 2) 3D microphysiological systems of the tumor microenvironment to probe mechanisms of metastasis including intravasation and extravasation, and 3) tissue engineered models of cardiac and vascular development. ​

We utilize both experimental and theoretical techniques. The projects are multidisciplinary and involve active collaborations at UCI with Professors Chris Hughes, Abe Lee, Leslie Lock, and Marian Waterman. In addition, we collaborate with Professor Karen Christman and Maike Sander at UCSD and Dr. Bruce Conklin at the Gladstone Institute in the Bay area.  Newer collaborations at Washington University include Professors Greg Longmore, Jason Weber, Stacey Rentschler, Lila Solnica-Krezel, Rebecca Aft, Cynthia Ma, and Ryan Fields.  The tissue engineering projects are supported by a fully-equipped modern cell and tissue culture lab, and actively employ modern stem biology techniques (e.g., differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells), fabrication of microfluidic devices using soft lithography, and non-invasive (optical) assessment or characterization of mechanical and metabolic properties of tissues.  
Selected Publications
Shirure, V.S. and S.C. George. ​ Design considerations to minimize the impact of drug absorption in polymer-based organ-on-a-chip platforms. Lab on a Chip, 2017, 17, 681 – 690.​​

Kurokawa, Y. and S.C. George. Tissue engineering the cardiac microenvironment: Multicellular microphysiological systems for drug screening. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 96:225-233, 2016.​

Heylman, C, R. Datta, A. Sobrino, S.C. George*, and E. Gratton*. Supervised machine learning for classification of the electrophysiological effects of chronotropic drugs on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PLoS One, 10(12): e01445722015, 2015.​​​ * contributed equally as senior authors on this manuscript.​​

Alonzo, L.F., M.L. Moya, V.S. Shirure, and S.C. George. Microfluidic device to control interstitial flow-mediated homotypic and heterotypic cellular communication. Lab on a Chip, 15(17):3521-3529, 2015. ​​

Lee, E.#, Y. Kurokawa#, R. Tu , S.C. George* and M. Khine*. Machine Learning plus Optical flow: A simple and sensitive method to detect cardioactive drugs​. Sci. Rep., 5:11817, 2015. #,* contributed equally as first and senior authors, respectively, on this manuscript.​

Merna, N., K. Fung, J. Wang, C. King, K. Hansen, K. Christman and S.C. George. Differential β3 Integrin Expression Regulates the Response of Human Lung and Cardiac Fibroblasts to Extracellular Matrix and Its Components. Tiss. Eng. Part A, 21(15-16):2195-2205, 2015.​

Ehsan, S. and S.C. George. Vessel network formation in response to intermittent hypoxia is frequency dependent. J. Biosci. and Bioeng., 3:347-350, 2015.​​

Ehsan, S., K. Welch, M.L. Waterman, C.C.W. Hughes, and S.C. George. A 3D in vitro model of tumor intravasation. Integrative Biology, 6(6):603-610, 2014.

Heylman, C#., A. Sobrino#, V.S. Shirure#, C.C.W. Hughes, and S.C. George. A strategy for integrating essential 3D microphysiological systems of human organs for realistic anti-cancer drug screening. Exp. Med. and Biol. (in press), 2014. # contributed equally as first authors on this manuscript.

Moya, M, C.C.W. Hughes, and S.C. George. Engineered in vitro systems of the microcircutlation. Ch. 7 pg 125-141. In: Vascularization: Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering. CRC Press, 2014.

George, S.C.. Vascularizing engineered tissues for in vivo and in vitro applications. Ch. 11, pg 283-298. In: Cardiac Regeneration and Repair II. Woodhead Publishing series in Biomaterials. 2014.

White, S.M., C.R. Pittman, R. Hingorania, R. Arora, T.V. Esipova, S.A. Vinogradov, C.C.W. Hughes, B. Choi*, and S.C. George*. Implanted cell-dense prevascularized spheroids develop functional vasculature that supports reoxygenation following thrombosis. Tiss. Eng. Part A, 10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0311, 2014.

Robertson, C., A.E. Heidari, Z. Chen, and S.C. George. Mechanical analysis of arterial plaques in native geometry with OCT wall motion analysis. J. Biomechanics 47:755-758, 2014.

Moya, M. and S.C. George. Integrating in vitro organ-specific function with the microcirculation. Curr Opin Chem Eng 3:102-11, 2014.

Moya, M, L.F. Alonzo, and S.C. George. Microfluidic device to culture 3D in vitro Human Capillary Networks. Methods in Molec. Biol.: Biomimetics and Stem Cells Methods and Protocols (edited by G. Vunjak-Novakovic and K. Turksen), 1202:21-27, 2014.

Moya, M#, D. Tran#, and S.C. George. An integrated in vitro model of perfused tumor and cardiac tissue. Stem Cell Res. & Ther., 4 Suppl 1:S15, 2013. # contributed equally as first authors on this manuscript.

Hsu, Y.-H#, M. Moya#, C.C.W. Hughes, S.C. George*, A.P. Lee*. A microfluidic platform for generating large-scale nearly identical human microphysiological system arrays. Lab Chip, 13 (15), 2990 – 2998, 2013. #,*contributed equally as first and corresponding authors, respectively, on this manuscript.

Robertson, C.J., K. Ikemura, T. Krasieva, and S.C. George. Multiscale analysis of collagen microstructure with generalized image correlation spectroscopy and the detection of tissue prestress. Biomaterials 34(26):6127-32, 2013.

Merna, N., C.R. Robertson, A. La, and S.C. George. Optical imaging predicts mechanical properties during decellularization of cardiac tissue. Tiss Engr. Part C, 19(10): 802-9, 2013.

Ehsan, S and S.C. George. Non-steady state oxygen transport in engineered tissue: Implications for design. Tiss Engr. Part A 19(11-12):1433-1442, 2013.

Raub, C.B., B.J. Tromberg, and S.C. George. Second-harmonic generation imaging of self-assembled collagen gels. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging. Chapter 11. (in press), 2013.

Moya, M., Hsu, Y.-H., A.P. Lee*, C.C.W. Hughes*, and S.C. George*. In vitro perfused human capillary networks. Tiss. Engr. Part C, 19(9): 730-737, 2013. (Supplementary video 1, video 2, video 3; Supplementary figure). *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Robertson, C.J., D. Tran, and S.C. George. Maturation phases of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Stem Cells 31:829-837, 2013.

Zhou, J., M.B. Alvarez-Elizondo, E. Botvinick, and George, S.C.. Adenosine A1 and prostaglandin EP3 receptors mediate global airway contraction following local epithelial injury. Am. J. Resp. Cell Molec. Biol., 48(3):299-305, 2013.

Hsu, Y.-H, M. Moya, C.C.W. Hughes*, S.C. George*, A.P. Lee*. Full range physiological mass transport control in 3D tissue cultures. Lab Chip, 13 (1), 81-89, 2013. *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Shi, Y., A.S. Aledia, S.P. Galant, and George, S.C. Peripheral airway impairment measured by oscillometry predicts loss of asthma control in children. J. Aller. Clin. Immunol., 131(3):718-723, 2013.

Robertson, C.J. and S.C. George. Theory and practical recommendations for autocorrelation-based image correlation spectroscopy. J. Biomed. Optics, 17, 080801 (2012).

Shi, Y., A.S. Aledia, A.V. Tatavoosian, S.C. George, and S.P. Galant. The cut-points for asthma control tests are higher in mexican children in Orange County, California. Ann. Asthma Allergy and Immun, 109(2):108-113, 2012.

White, S.M., R. Hingorania†, R. Aroraa†, C.C.W. Hughes, S.C. George*, and B. Choi*. Longitudinal in vivo imaging to assess blood flow and oxygenation in implantable engineered tissues. Tiss. Engr. Part C, 18(9):697-709, 2012. †contributed equally as authors on this manuscript. *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Zhou, J., M.B. Alvarez-Elizondo, E. Botvinick, and George, S.C.. Local small airway epithelial injury induces global smooth muscle contraction and airway constriction. J. Appl. Physiol., 112(4):627-637, 2012.

Shi, Y., A.S. Aledia, A. Tatavoosian, S. Vijayalakshmi, S.P. Galant, and George, S.C.. Relating small airways to asthma control by using impulse oscillometry in children. J. Aller. Clin. Immunol., 129(3):671-678, 2012.

George, S.C. and M.P. Hlastala. Airway Gas Exchange and Exhaled Biomarkers. Comprehensive Physiol., 1:1837-1859, 2011.

Tian, L., and S.C. George. Biomaterials to vascularize engineered tissues. J. Cardio. Trans. Res., 4(5):685-98, 2011.

Robertson, C.J., S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S.C. George. Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography, J. Biomed. Optics, 16(10):106011, 2011.

Jiang, J. and S.C. George. TGF-β2 reduces nitric oxide synthase mRNA through a ROCK-dependent pathway in airway epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol.: Lung Cell Molec. Biol., 301(3):L361-7, 2011.

Jiang, J. and S.C. George. Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells. Nitric Oxide: Biol. Chem., 25(3):275-81, 2011.

White, S.M., S.C. George*, and B. Choi*. Automated computation of functional vascular density using laser speckle imaging in a rodent window chamber model. Microvasc. Res., 82(1):92-5, 2011.*contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Raub, C.B., B.J. Tromberg, A. Putnam, and S.C. George. Predicting bulk mechanical properties of cellularized collagen gels using multiphoton microscopy. Acta Biomaterialia., 6:4657-4665, 2010.

Puckett, J.L., R.W.E. Taylor, S.-Y. Leu, O.L. Guijon, A.S. Aledia, S.P. Galant*, and S.C. George*. Clinical patterns in asthma based on proximal and distal airway nitric oxide categories. Resp. Res., 11:47, 2010. *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Miller, C., S.C. George, and L.A. Niklason. Developing a tissue engineered model of the human bronchiole. J. Tiss. Eng. Regen. Med., 4(8):619-27, 2010.

Shelley, D.A., J.L. Puckett, and S.C. George. Quantifying proximal and distal sources of NO using a multi-compartment model. J. Appl. Physiol., 108(4):821-829, 2010.

Ghajar, C.M., S. Kachgal, E. Kniazeva, H. Mori, S.V. Costes, S.C. George*, and A.J. Putnam*. Mesenchymal cells stimulate capillary morphogenesis via distinct proteolytic mechanisms. Exp. Cell Res. 316(5):813-825, 2010. *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Raub, C.B., S. Mahon, N. Narula, B.J. Tromberg, M. Brenner, and S.C. George. Linking optics and mechanics in an in vivo model of airway fibrosis and epithelial injury. J. Biomed. Optics., 15(1):015004, 2010.

Puckett, J.L., R.W.E. Taylor, S.P. Galant, and S.C. George. Impact of analysis interval on the multiple exhalation flow technique to partition exhaled nitric oxide. Ped. Pulm., 45(2):182-191, 2010.

Puckett, J.L., R.W.E. Taylor, S.-Y. Leu, O.L. Guijon, A.S. Aledia, S.P. Galant*, and S.C. George*. An elevated bronchodilator response predicts large airway inflammation in mild asthma. Ped. Pulm., 45(2):174-181, 2010. *contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.

Chen, X., A.S. Aledia, S.A. Popson, L. Him, C.C.W. Hughes*, and S.C. George*. Rapid anastomosis of endothelial progenitor cell-derived vessels with host vasculature is promoted by a high density of co-transplanted fibroblasts. Tiss. Eng., 16(2):585-594, 2010.*contributed equally as corresponding authors on this manuscript.